• Barerah Siddiqui Bahria University


Self-Esteem, Children, Adolescent, Scale Development, Validation


The study aimed to indigenously develop the Self-Esteem Scale for Children grounded on multidimensional model of self-esteem by James Battle (2002). For this purpose self-esteem was espoused as having four components namely (1) General self, (2) Social self, (3) Academic self, and (4) Parental self. After item generation the scale was administered on a population of 298 children in terms of two pilot studies having sample of (n=97; n =200) repectively. After pilot testing, the final Self-Esteem Scale for Children was administered upon a sample of 234 children with age range between 12-16 years. Principle component analysis showed that most of the items on scale were heavily loaded on first four factors with Eigen value >.1. The 16-item scale correlated positively with an average of r= .50, p<.01. The Self-Esteem Scale for Children is shown to have very good internal consistency (α=.80, p<.01), split-half reliability (r= .68, p<.01) and test-retest reliability r= .80, p<.01). Henceforth psychometric evaluation established Self-Esteem Scale for Children as a reliable and valid measure of self-esteem in a multidimensional context.


Aziz, S. (1991). The role of some social and enviromental factors in drug addiction among male university students. M.Phil Dissertation . Islamabad: NIP Quaid-e-Azam University.

American Psychological Association. (2017). Self-esteem. Retrieved from American Psychological Association:

Ansari, Z. A., Farooqi, G. N., Yasmin, M., & Khan, S. (1982). Development of an Urdu Checklist: A preliminary report. Islamabad: National Institute of Psychology.

Azjen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Baron, R. A., & Byrne, D. (1997). Social Psychology (8 ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Battle, J. (1992). Culture – free self-esteem inventories for children and adults. tEXAS: Pro-Ed.

Battles, J. (1990). Self-esteem: The new revolution. Edmonton: James Battle & Associates.

Battle, J. (2002). Culture free self-esteem inventories: 3rd edition. Austin,TX: PRO-ED.

Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in teh Public Intrest, 4, 1-44.

Benson, J. (1998). Developing a strong program of construct validation: A test anxiety example. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 17, 10-18.

Brooks, R. B. (1992). Self-esteem during the school years: Its normal development and hazardous decline. Peadriatic clinic of North America, 39, 537-550.

Byrne, B. M. (1996). Measuring self-concept across the life span. Washington,DC: American Psychological Association.

Chubb, N. H., Fertman, C. I., & Ross, J. L. (1997). Adolescent self-esteem and locus of control: A longitudinal study of gender and age differences. Adolescence, 32, 113-129.

Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedants of self-esteem. San Francisco: W.H.Freeman and Company.

Coon, D. (1994). Essentials of Psychology (6th ed.). Los angeles: West Publishing Co.

Dillon, R. S. (2004). "What's a women worth? What's life worth? Without self-respect? On the value of evaluative self-respect". In P. Des Auteles, & M. Walker, Moral Psychology: Feminist Ethics and Social Theory (pp. 47-69). Lanham: Rowman and Littlefeild.

Durrani, N. (1989). Self-esteem of Pakistani primary school children:Gender, grade and urban-rural diffrences. Seventh Conferance of Pakistan Psychological Association. Lahore.

Donders, W., & Verschueren, K. (2004). Zelfwaardering en acceptatie door leeftijdsgenoten. Een longitudinaal onderzoek bij basisschoolkinderen. Kind en Adolescent, 25, 74-90.

Epstein, S. (1973). The self-concept revisited a theory of a theory. Am. Psychol, 28, 404-16.

Gebauer, J. E., Sedikides, C., Wagner, J., Bleidorn, W., Rentfrow, P. J., Potter, J., et al. (2015). Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 526-548.

Heatherton, T. F., & Carrie, L. W. (2003). Assessing self-esteem. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 219-233). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Khalid, R. (1988). Self-esteem of minority children: A study of Pakistanis in Scotland. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 3 ((1-2)), 23-32.

Khalid, R. (1990). Self-esteem and academic achievement: An investigation of ethnic and sex diffrences. Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 1, 3-17.

Leary, M. R. (2004). function of self-esteem in terror management theory and sociometer theory: Comment on Pyszczynski et al. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 478-482.

Mann, M., Hosman, C. H., Schaalma, H. P., & De Vries, N. K. (2004). Self-esteem in an broad-spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education research, 19, 357-372.

Marsh, H. W. (1989). Age and sex effects in multiple dimensions of self-concept – preadolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 417-430.

Miller, D., & Moran, T. (2007). Theory and practice in self esteem enhancement: Circle-Time and efficacy based Approaches-a controlled evaluation. Teachers and Teaching, 13 (6), 601-615.

Papadopoulos, K., Metsiou, K., & Agaliotis, I. (2011). Adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1086-1096.

Pope, A. W., Mchale, S. M., & Craighead, W. E. (1988). Selfesteem enhanchement with children and adolescents. Oxford: Permagon Press.

Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal relationships, as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology, A study of science (Vol. 3). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 151–161.

Robins, R. W., Norem, J. K., & Cheek, J. M. (1999). Naturalizing the Self. In L. A. Pervin, & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and research (pp. 443-477). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Rosenbergh, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Saigal, S., Lambert, M., Russ, C., & Hoult, L. (2002). Self-esteem of adolescents who were born prematurely.

Shafiq, M. (1987). The self-concept of heroin addicts as compared to non addicts. M.Phil Thesis . Islamabad, Pakistan: NIP,Quaid-e-Azam University.

Snygg, D., & Combs, A. W. (1949). Individual Behavior: A Frame of Reference for Psychology. NewYork: Harper.

Tafarodi, R. W., & Milne, A. B. (2002). Decomposing global self-esteem. Journal of Personality, 70 (4), 443-483.

Tariq, P. N. (1992). A comparitive psychological profile for profesional and non professional criminals in Pakistan,Psychological Research Monograph No. 10. PhD. Thesis . Islamabad: National Institute of Psychology.

Turner, R. H. (1968). The self-conception in social interact. In C. Gordon, & K. Gergen (Eds.), The Self : Social Inteaction. NewYork: Wiley.

Wylie, R. C. (1974). The self-conccept: A review of methodological considerations and measurin instruments (Vol. 1). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.




How to Cite

Siddiqui, B. (2023). DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SELF-ESTEEM SCALE FOR CHILDREN. Pakistan Journal of Psychology, 53(1). Retrieved from